Euro, la nostra moneta da vent’anni

51

“Vent’anni biondo mai una lira

per non passare guai

fiutava intorno che aria tira

e non sgobbava mai”

Così cantava Giorgio Gaber con la “Ballata del Cerruti” nel lontano 1961 e sicuramente non pensava all’euro. Viene però da pensarci oggi che, abbandonata la lira, l’euro  di colore biondo-tedesco compie vent’anni nelle nostre tasche, di aria politica in Europa ne ha fiutata molta per evitarci guai, senza sgobbare più di tanto, come conviene alla moneta che il lavoro lo lascia all’economia, in particolare a quelli che di euro in tasca ne hanno pochi.

Ci sono molti modi di raccontare la storia complessa dell’euro: da quelli dotti che ne percorrono il lungo travaglio prima della sua nascita a quelli che fanno i conti in tasca a chi ci ha guadagnato e a chi ci ha perso. Tra questi ultimi, quelli che hanno visto raddoppiare il prezzo del caffè al bar, aumentare di molto gli alimentari, con la consolazione di vedere poi ridotti i prezzi degli elettrodomestici e dei computer e protette le percentuali dei mutui.

Ma la storia dell’euro si può anche raccontare come una straordinaria avventura politica vissuta, per cominciare, da undici Paesi con l’Italia entrata non proprio dalla porta principale, quella controllata con arcigna sorveglianza dalla Germania. Negli anni il numero dei partner sarebbe cresciuto fino ai diciannove di oggi, con altri che esitano in anticamera e qualcuno che proprio non ci pensa. Ne mancherebbe solo uno per festeggiare a venti il ventesimo compleanno.

L’idea di una moneta unica veniva da lontano, esperienze analoghe erano già state tentate in Europa, alcune anche con buoni risultati. A ben vedere era già tra le righe dei primi Trattati della Comunità europea: la necessità di una moneta unica per armonizzare le politiche economiche era già stata annunciata da Jean Monnet nel 1959 e prevista nel “Piano Werner” del 1970, andato poco dopo a sbattere contro la crisi economica degli anni ‘70. 

Per vedere riprendere il progetto bisognerà aspettare nel 1992 la nascita dell’Unione Europea con il Trattato di Maastricht, formatosi alla confluenza dell’abbattimento del muro di Berlino del 1989 con la realizzazione nel 1992 del mercato unico europeo. Si saldano in questi anni nuove dinamiche economiche e geopolitiche, entrambe occasioni favorevoli al grande balzo verso la moneta unica, una svolta importante verso la creazione di un’Unione politica, il traguardo a cui già guardavano i Padri fondatori dei primi anni ‘50.

Oggi quel traguardo resta ancora lontano: manca una effettiva politica economica e fiscale comune e, visti i tempi, fa crudelmente difetto una comune politica estera e della sicurezza. Per riavvarsi verso quel traguardo sono in molti a guardare a quegli undici primi Paesi che adottarono nel 1999 la moneta unica, tra essi i sei Paesi fondatori delle prime Comunità europee, insieme con Spagna e Portogallo a sud e Austria, Irlanda, e  Finlandia al centro-nord.

E’ a questi Paesi, anche se non i pari misura, che si guarda quando con prudenza e discrezione affiora il tema carsico di un’Europa a più velocità: quella di Paesi che, avendo già consentito da oltre vent’anni una fondamentale “cessione di sovranità” a Istituzioni sovranazionali e avendo da tempo sperimentato insieme politiche progressivamente più coordinate, sono adesso meglio preparati per intraprendere la strada in salita verso l’Unione politica.

Se questo avverrà un merito significativo sarà da riconoscere all’euro che, nonostante i suoi limiti, ci ha fatto crescere più europei e preparati all’Unione Europea del futuro.  

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              

Ci sono molti modi di raccontare la storia complessa dell’euro: da quelli dotti che ne percorrono il lungo travaglio prima della sua nascita a quelli che fanno i conti in tasca a chi ci ha guadagnato e a chi ci ha perso. Tra questi ultimi, quelli che hanno visto raddoppiare il prezzo del caffè al bar, aumentare di molto gli alimentari, con la consolazione di vedere poi ridotti i prezzi degli elettrodomestici e dei computer e protette le percentuali dei mutui.

Ma la storia dell’euro si può anche raccontare come una straordinaria avventura politica vissuta, per cominciare, da undici Paesi con l’Italia entrata non proprio dalla porta principale, quella controllata con arcigna sorveglianza dalla Germania. Negli anni il numero dei partner sarebbe cresciuto fino ai diciannove di oggi, con altri che esitano in anticamera e qualcuno che proprio non ci pensa. Ne mancherebbe solo uno per festeggiare a venti il ventesimo compleanno.

L’idea di una moneta unica veniva da lontano, esperienze analoghe erano già state tentate in Europa, alcune anche con buoni risultati. A ben vedere era già tra le righe dei primi Trattati della Comunità europea: la necessità di una moneta unica per armonizzare le politiche economiche era già stata annunciata da Jean Monnet nel 1959 e prevista nel “Piano Werner” del 1970, andato poco dopo a sbattere contro la crisi economica degli anni ‘70. 

Per vedere riprendere il progetto bisognerà aspettare nel 1992 la nascita dell’Unione Europea con il Trattato di Maastricht, formatosi alla confluenza dell’abbattimento del muro di Berlino del 1989 con la realizzazione nel 1992 del mercato unico europeo. Si saldano in questi anni nuove dinamiche economiche e geopolitiche, entrambe occasioni favorevoli al grande balzo verso la moneta unica, una svolta importante verso la creazione di un’Unione politica, il traguardo a cui già guardavano i Padri fondatori dei primi anni ‘50.

Oggi quel traguardo resta ancora lontano: manca una effettiva politica economica e fiscale comune e, visti i tempi, fa crudelmente difetto una comune politica estera e della sicurezza. Per riavvarsi verso quel traguardo sono in molti a guardare a quegli undici primi Paesi che adottarono nel 1999 la moneta unica, tra essi i sei Paesi fondatori delle prime Comunità europee, insieme con Spagna e Portogallo a sud e Austria, Irlanda, e  Finlandia al centro-nord.

E’ a questi Paesi, anche se non i pari misura, che si guarda quando con prudenza e discrezione affiora il tema carsico di un’Europa a più velocità: quella di Paesi che, avendo già consentito da oltre vent’anni una fondamentale “cessione di sovranità” a Istituzioni sovranazionali e avendo da tempo sperimentato insieme politiche progressivamente più coordinate, sono adesso meglio preparati per intraprendere la strada in salita verso l’Unione politica.

Se questo avverrà un merito significativo sarà da riconoscere all’euro che, nonostante i suoi limiti, ci ha fatto crescere più europei e preparati all’Unione Europea del futuro. 

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